What is an Acid Oil Plant?
Acid Oil Making Plant or Acid dilution system is a set of equipment and machinery used to generate acid oil. The Plant is designed to run in a constant and analytical function. The acid oil plant, which is made from high-quality raw materials, has a strong resistance to corrosion caused by concentrated chemicals. The plants have been designed with a variety of operation modes that make them simple to use. The factory is built to store a variety of acids.
Composition of Acid Oil
Acid oil is mostly composed of a long-chain free fatty acid combination, with minor levels of mineral acids (1-2%), free moisture (5-8%), phospholipids, and sterols (8-10%), all of which contribute to the acid oil’s pungent odor and dark brown color.
Acid oil has fuel qualities that differ from diesel fuel due to its oxygenated nature and chained kind of configurational molecule. Heating values are marginally lower than diesel fuel, however, viscosity and ignition values are higher. Acid oil can be used as a diesel fuel substitute if the viscosity is lowered and brought closer to that of diesel fuel.
Process of making Acid Oil
In the Soap stock splitting plants, Soap stock is supplied into an acid oil reaction vessel, which is heated with vapor from 90-95 degrees Celsius. Sulfuric acid is gradually added to the soap stock when this temperature is reached.
The amount of TFA (total fatty acid) in the soapstock determines the amount to be added; the normal range is 12 to 15%. The combination of sulfuric acid and soap stock is left in the container for around 15 minutes to finish the reaction.
After that, the sample is heated and held at a boil for 2 to 3 hours. The acid oil is heated until it splits. After that, the mixture is maintained in the vessel for at least six hours to settle entirely.
What is meant by soapstock?
Soapstock is a by-product of the separation of soap, epoxy acids, and paraffin materials as a consequence of caustic cleaning and neutralization of free fatty acids, as well as the refining of vegetable raw oil.
It’s mostly made up of water with a small quantity of oil. It’s made when raw oils are neutralized with caustic soda to remove free fatty acids (alkaline refining).
It’s made up of fatty acid soaps, salts, phospholipids, contaminants, and neutral oil that’s been entrained. To obtain Acid oil, soapstock is split with sulphuric/hydrochloric acid.
What is soapstock used for?
Water, saponified fatty acids, triglycerides, phosphatides, and other chemicals in smaller proportions make up the Soapstock, which is an alkaline oily emulsion. It’s utilized for a variety of things, including the soap business and the creation of a free fatty acid concentration.
What is soap stock splitting?
The chemical neutralization of oils and fats produces soapstock as a by-product. Acidification with powerful acids like sulfuric or hydrochloric acid could break this stock into fatty acids and water.
The phosphatide has a major impact on the splitting process throughout the separation phase, particularly during the production of stable emulsions. Secondary saponification could help to prevent this to a significant extent.
Because of this, the soapstock is subjected to higher temperatures and pressures than usual. A fraction of the phosphatide is formed as a by-product of the neutral oil in the soapstock saponifying during the reaction period under these conditions.
Before the soapstock is actually transported to the splitting process, diluted water may be used in the interim tank after saponification. With the addition of a harsh acid to the splitting tank, the pH is lowered.
Fatty acid and water are separated from the soapstock and transferred into a static decanting tank. It’s possible that the divided fatty acid will be digested immediately. The acid water is then sent through a fat separator with a flotation chamber ahead. Finally, the defatted water is neutralized with caustic soda.
How do you make acid oil from soapstock?
The soapstock from the refinery is collected in the reaction vessel and heated with steam at a temperature of roughly 90–95 degrees Celsius.
Sulphuric acid, or any other acid medium, is carefully added to the soap stock. This mixture will take about 15-20 minutes to react. The 15-minute reaction is particularly helpful in improving the quality of the acid oil produced. The pot is slowly heated and boiled for roughly 3 hours to split the acid oil. Following the completion of the reaction, the Stabilization Process takes place for a few hours.
Following the settling process, three distinct layers are formed, as shown below:
- The acid Oil Layer is the top layer
- The acidic Sludge Layer is the middle layer.
- The acidic Water Layer is the lower bottom layer
The acidic water from the lower layer is released into the acidic water storage tank via the exhaust valve. A screw pump is then used to pump the second layer of acidic sewage into a sludge tank. Lastly, the final layer, acid oil, is poured into an acid oil storage tank, yielding the required Acid Oil.
What are the uses of acid oil?
Acid oil, leftover vegetable oil refineries, can also be used for biofuel research and development. Because acid oil contains far more free fatty acids and moisture than refined vegetable oils, the traditional transesterification procedure fails to deliver the expected results.
Our plants have over 95 percent efficiency with reduced acid consumption, low quantity of sludge and fumes, lower acidity of effluent, and high quantity of acid oil with enhanced quality, thanks to our 25+ years of experience in designing, manufacturing, and commissioning over 200 Soap Stock Splitting plants / Acid oil plants for all sizes of refineries. Our Soap Stock Splitting Plants / Acid Oil Plants are equipped with corrosion-resistant pipelines, pumps, valves, and other components.
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